Strengthening the resilience of potato seed systems in developing countries can improve the food security of smallholder potato farmers. In this case, resilience refers to the adaptive capacity of the system to function effectively under seed stress situations that can be caused by biotic (e.g., seed-borne pests or pathogens), abiotic factors (e.g., frost or droughts) or socio-economic factors related to the system's stakeholders. Potato seed degeneration (PSD), defined as pathogen and pest accumulation in seed tubers over successive cycles of vegetative propagation, leads to yield loss and threatens the resilience of these systems by reducing seed health. The "integrated seed health strategy" is one approach to manage PSD in developing countries, which integrates host resistance and on-farm management practices (e.g., positive selection, planting seeds at high altitudes) with strategic use of high-quality seed (e.g., quality declared or certified seed). While PSD has been managed in the global north through certified seed, for various reasons formal seed systems never worked in much of the global south, especially in the high Andes. Currently, a global research effort led by the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) is studying the epidemiology of PSD, focusing on biophysical drivers, such as environment, pathogens, host genotype, and management. However, the relationship between biophysical and socio-economic drivers (e.g., on-farm seed management practices, farmers' seed exchange, decision makers' perceptions about seed systems, etc.) and how these influence PSD is not clearly understood, and is essential to increasing the productivity and resilience of the main food source of small scale farmers in the Andes.